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Aspect

SEMANTICS:
a cover term for those properties
of a sentence
that constitute the temporal structure of the event denoted
by the
verb
and its arguments. Not all verbs have the same aspectual properties
and so may belong to different aspectual
classes
. The aspect of a sentence is in many languages expressed syntactically
and/or morpho-phonologically.
EXAMPLE:
the opposition between the perfective (I have gone), the imperfective
(I went) and the progressive
aspect
(I am going) in English. Also, it is considered a matter
of aspect whether or not the event is bounded (e.g. I ran out of the
room
) or unbounded (e.g. I ran).

Aspectual classes

SEMANTICS 
: A classification of verbs with respect to their
aspectual properties, dating back to an Aristotelian classification of
situations. The most popular aspectual classes are those proposed in Vendler
(1967) (extending a classification in Kenny (1963)) and applied and formalized
in Dowty (1979): States,
Activities (unbounded processes),
Accomplishments (bounded processes), and
Achievements (point
events). Examples are given in (i) to (iv):

(i)   States: Socrates is mortal, She is in danger, He loves potatoes
(ii)  Activities: John walked miles and miles, She drove him safely
(iii) Accomplishments: John walked home, She ate a sandwich
(iv)  Achievements: She reached the top, He won the race

Linguistically, the classification is often used for the
analysis of °aspect.
However, Verkuyl (1989,1993) argues that aspectual classes have no explanatory
function in the analysis of aspect. For him, the opposition between States
and Activities on the one hand and Accomplishments and
Achievements
on
the other hand is considered central, also known as the contrast between
durative/atelic aspect versus terminative/telic aspect. Durative sentences,
but not terminative sentences can be used with a durative adverbial like
for
hours
:

(v)   For hours she was in danger
(vi)  ?For hours she reached the top

Sentence (vi) can only be interpreted with a repetition,
indicating that She reached the top is a terminative sentence. In
Slavic
languages
, terminative aspect can be morphologically marked.



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Earl
Jackson,, Jr


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Another Scene


 Out
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Science Fiction
Practice and Theory

earl jackson, jr

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